Review


man__megaphoneThe final will be held next Tuesday at 1:30 in the TLC classroom.  Remember to do your class evaluations on-line. I enjoyed the class, you were a lot of fun! Have a great summer and I will see you in the fall……

REVIEW FOR THE FINAL

I can’t put the Jeopardy power points on the blog, so I will put the questions and answers on this post.  Note that there are some questions that were not reviewed in class because no one picked that category. You should also review the text and the powerpoints here on the blog.

Here is the link to the DJ power point

double-jeopardy-round1

Mental patterns that guide behavior- what are schemes?

The process of understanding a new idea or event in terms of an existing schema- what is assimilation?

support for learning and problem solving given by a teacher-what is scaffolding?

when tasks can’t be done alone but can be accomplished with the help of the more competent adult or peer-what is the zone of proximal development?

Piaget’s stage where one can deal abstractly with hypothetical situations and can reason logically-what is formal operational?

the “Magic 7” plus or minus two-what is the term for the number of items that can be stored in short-term memory?

the three types of memory according to the modal memory model-what are sensory, short-term,and long-term?

when prior learning makes new learning more difficult-what is pro active interference?

analysis, synthesis and evaluation-what are the three highest levels of thinking according to Bloom’s taxonomy?

That three types of representational “coding”-what are phonological, visual and semantic?

Theories that development occurs according to recognizable levels-what are discontinuous or stage theories?

He had an eight stage theory of psychosocial development-who was Erik Erikson?

Kohlberg’s level of moral reasoning where a person defines his/her own moral values-what is post conventional reasoning?

He wrote “The Hurried Child”-who is David Elkind?

He expanded on Erikson’s identity crisis by including “foreclosure,” moratorium” and “achievement” as substations-who is James Marcia?

The part of Clive Waring’s brain destroyed by a virus-what is the hippocampus?

The brain has approximately 100 billion of these-what are neurons?

The process by which unused brain synapses die out-what is pruning?

The part of the brain said to deal with language and analytical thought-what is the left hemisphere?

The section of the brain that connects the two hemispheres-what is the corpus callosum?

The score on an intelligence test-what is IQ or intelligence quotient?

He said that “self-actualization” is the highest human need-who was Abraham Maslow?

The two learning style domains opposite of concrete and sequential-what are random and abstract?

He devised a three part division for intelligence-who is Robert Sternberg?

He created the Stanford-Binet IQ test-who was Louis Turman?

He developed “programmed instruction”-who was BF Skinner?

he believed that students are motivated in a classroom setting because of “vicarious reinforcement”-who is Albert Bandura?

when a learner engages in an activity to garner a reward not inherently connected to that activity-what is extrinsic motivation?

When external rewards hampered the intrinsic motivation to learn-what is the undermining effect?

He identified the characteristics of “high need” and “low need” achievers-who is J. W. Atkinson?

The four explanations (or attributions) people give for their success or failure-what are luck, ability, effort, and task difficulty?

B. F. Skinner kept his infant daughter here-what is an air crib?

He developed the theory of classical conditioning through his work with dogs-who was Ivan Pavlov?

He developed the “law of effect”-who was Edward Thorndike?

An unpleasant consequence that weakens behavior-what is punishment?

the idea that we can promote less desirable activities by pairing them with more desirable identities-what is the premack principal?

The theory that learners make meaning from their own experience-what is constructivist learning theory?

The branch of psychology most concerned with how the brain finds patterns in our experiences-what is gestalt psychology?

Ignoring unwanted behavior until it disappears-what is extinction?

Enactive, iconic and symbolic-what were Jerome Bruner’s three types of representation?

In terms of physical development, this gender is usually one to one and years behind-what are “boys”?

the school years when most children go through puberty-what is middle school?

the domain of learning associated with physical development-what is the psycho motor domain?

She criticized Kohlberg’s theory of moral development based on gender-who was Carol Gilligan?

His “attachment theory” claimed that healthy relationships with caring adults was critical for healthy child development-who was James Garbarino?

it is “plastic” in the sense that it functions in many ways and on many levels simultaneously-what is the brain?

fMRI,EEG,PET- what are ways to scan or create images of the working brain?

This is necessary for information to go from short-term memory to long-term memory-what is rehearsal?

The hypothesis that we are most likely to remember words at the end of a random list-what is the recency effect?

A strategy to help you remember random information-but is a mnemonic device?

The Harvard psychologist who developed the theory of multiple intelligences-who is Howard Gardner?

Mozart excelled in this type of intelligence-what is musical intelligence?

the type of intelligence necessary to control physical motion-what is bodily-kinesthetic intelligence?

Along with logical-mathematical, this is the intelligence most frequently tested for in school-what is linguistic intelligence?

If you are good at drawing, building or designing, you display this intelligence-what is spatial intelligence?

Breaking down concepts or ideas into their various parts-what is analysis?

The domain of learning concerned with feelings, beliefs and attitudes-what is the affective domain?

The concept in attribution theory that indicates whether you are in charge of your success or failure-what is the locus of control?

Pseudoscience that claims to know a person’s intelligence by feeling the bumps on their head-what is phrenology?

He is given credit for establishing the middle school curriculum-who is James Beane?

Concepts/Terms to know

Learning
1. What is it?
2. Behaviorism
3. Conditioning- Classical & Operant
4. Pavlov
5. Stimulus & Response
6. Thorndike- The Law of Effect
7. B.F Skinner
8. The Air Crib
9. Reinforcement vs Punishment
10. Primary vs Secondary Reinforcers
11. Positive vs Negative Reinforcement
12. Premack Principle
13. Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Rewards
14. Shaping
15. Extinction (burst)
16. Schedules of Reinforcement
17. Bandura
Memory
1. the Modal Model (sensory memory, short-term memory [rehearsal], long term memory)
2. the case of Clive Wearing
3. the Serial Position Curve-the Primary Effect hypothesis and the Recency Effect hypothesis
4. “chunking” discrete items-the Magic Seven plus or minus two
5. Coding (visual coding, phonological coding, semantic coding)
6. Proactive/Retroactive Interference- Facilitation
7. The Working Memory Model (phonological and visuospatial)
8. Cog Lab Tests- Memory Span, Modality Effect, Brain Asymmetry, Irrelevant Speech, Stroop Task.
9. Memory strategies

1. Domains of Learning
a. The Cognitive Domain
b. The Psychomotor Domain
c. The Affective Domain
2. Benjamin Bloom’s taxonomy of the cognitive domain
a. a taxonomy is a hierarchical system of categorization
i. recall
ii. comprehension
iii. application
iv. analysis
v. synthesis
vi. evaluation
b. the last three levels are “higher levels of thinking”

The quiz will consist of 15 Multiple Choice questions and 4 short answer essays.

Here are some of the ideas/concepts that you should know:

human development (definition and types); G. Stanley Hall; ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny; continuous/discontinuous theories of development; nature versus nurture; maturation; schema; equilibration; adaptation; assimilation; accommodation; constructivist learning theory; Piaget’s stages of cognitive development (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational); object permanence; egocentric; conservation; transitivity; seriation; hypothetico-deductive reasoning; Vygotsky’s theory of socio-cultural development; public versus private speech; psychological tools; imitative learning; mediation; empirical learning; theoretical learning; the zone of proximal development; scaffolding; Erikson’s stages of personal/social development (trust versus mistrust, autonomy versus doubt, initiative versus guilt, industry versus inferiority, identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus self-absorption, integrity versus despair); Piaget’s moral development (heteronomous morality, autonomous morality); Kohlberg’s three levels of moral development (preconventional, conventional and postconventional) as well as each of the two stages at each level; Gilligan’s criticism of Kohlberg and her own theory of development; Turiel’s Domain theory; Beane’s middle school model and his theory of Democratic Teaching.